Panchangam is thecombination of five elements, which are vaaram, tithi, nakshatram, yogam and karanam .Also, Tamil fiestas, abstaining and vruthams associated with the Tamil calendar, which based on panchangam. Apart from the panchangam, you can also find the sunrise and sunset timings, paksha, rahu, gulika and yamaganda timings on panchang.
Vaaram in panchangam
Vaaram is the individual day of the week, Monday through Sunday. Each day is good for a certain activity. Since each day ruled by a certain planet. The character of the planet indicates the activities it is good for. The horai of the day also plays a part in defining activities,suited for certain horais of the day.
For any day of the week a few things one can do and others not allowed to do. As an example, Sunday, Monday, Wednesday and Thursday are good enough for conducting of marriages, homams, santhi rituals and such auspicious events.
Tithi in Panchangam
Tithi one of fourteen parts in the waxing and waning phase of the moon. Sunday-Ashtami, Monday- Navami, Tuesday-Sashti, Wednesday-Tritiya, Thursday-Ekadasi, Friday-Tryodasi, Saturday-Chaturdasi are Tithis, that are auspicious tithis.
Similarly, Sunday- Chaturdasi, Monday- Sashti, Tuesday- Sapthami, Wednesday- Dwitiya, Thursday- Ashtami, Friday- Navami, Saturday- sapthami are tithis that are inauspicious and so shall not used for any auspicious events. Most importantly, some tithis said to have two eyes. These tithis said, very good and activities that started on these tithis with two eyes are successful. Dwitiya, Tritiya, Chaturthi, Panchami, Sashti and Saptami are tithis with two eyes during the Krishna paksha or waning moon phase.
Nakshtram in Panchangam
Nakshatram is one of the 27 nakshatras in the zodiac, starting with Aswini, Bharani, Karthigai, Rohini and ending with Revathi. The nakshatram is another limb of the panchangam. Some nakshatrams said good and some bad. The importance of a nakshatram seen when it advised that money lending not done on days of Thiruvadirai, Bharani, Karthigai, Aayilyam, Pooram, Pooradam, Poorattathi, Kettai, Visakam, Swati, Chithirai and Magam nakshatram.
Yogam in Panchangam
Amirtha, Siddha and Marana yogam are very common yogams. The quality and result of the yogams indicated on the stars or nakshatrams that fall on any day. It generally believed that the nakshatrams Bharani, Punarpoosam, Pooram, Swati, Pooradam, Uthirattadhi are good.
Karanam in Pnchangam
Karanam relates to tithi, each Tithi lasts for 12 degree duration of distance of Chandra from Ravi. Each Tithi is divided into two halves of 60 duration. First half is ruled by one Karana and the second half up to the end of the Tithi is ruled by next Karanam.